2017-An international team describes California's Cerutti Mastodon site, found in 1992. The researchers argue that the assemblage of broken mastodon bones and rocks comprises evidence of human activity. Based on measures of radioactive uranium and thorium in the bones, they argue that the site is 130,000 years old. Because this date is generally understood to precede modern Homo sapiens spreading beyond Africa, the paper suggests that Neanderthals, Denisovans or even late Homo erectus might have reached North America via the Bering Land Bridge and Pacific Coast. Nature , the paper's publisher, calls the study a "jaw-dropping claim." Parties to the announcement anticipate skepticism.
Preference was given in the past to immigrants from those countries from which South Africa's present white population is derived. Between 1963 and 1984, the number of immigrants averaged about 37,000 annually, and the number of emigrants about 12,000. Between 1980 – 84, some 72,528 Zimbabwe residents emigrated to South Africa. After 1984, immigration fell, and, perhaps as a consequence, the white population actually declined between 1980 – 91. Of the 63,495 immigrants between 1986 – 91, 16,815 came from other African countries, 16,056 from the United Kingdom , 16,512 from other European countries, and 14,112 from other parts of the world. Emigration came to 46,541 during these years.