Writing to a Soviet magazine in 1987, a Russian reader called what he saw around him a “radical break [ perelom ] in consciousness.” We know that he was right because Russia’s is the first great revolution whose course was charted in public opinion polls almost from the beginning. Already at the end of 1989, the first representative national public opinion survey found overwhelming support for competitive elections and the legalization of parties other than the Soviet Communist Party — after four generations under a one-party dictatorship and with independent parties still illegal. By mid-1990, more than half those surveyed in a Russian region agreed that “a healthy economy” was more likely if “the government allows individuals to do as they wish.” Six months later, an all-Russia poll found 56 percent supporting a rapid or gradual transition to a market economy. Another year passed, and the share of the pro-market respondents increased to 64 percent.
Hitler himself has been represented as an occult figure, despite his own stated scorn for interest in the occult. The most influential publication for the “occultization” of Hitler was Hermann Rauschning’s 1939 publication of a forged collection of talks with Hitler, Hitler Speaks , ³⁶ intended to present Hitler as an infernally-inspired foe. In the spring of 1939, Edouard Saby published Hitler et les forces occultes , in which he depicts Hitler “as the sorcerer’s apprentice” and manufactures occult connections between Hitler and Tibet: “Wasn’t it Trebitsch-Lincoln, the friend of the Tibetan Badmaiev, who initiated Hitler, by revealing to him the doctrine of Ostara, a secret school of India, where the lamas teach the supremacy of the Aryan?” ³⁷ C. Kerneiz’s work La Chute d’Hitler , published in 1940, attempts to analyze Hitler “cosmo-biologically” and claims that the group around General Ludendorff of all people, with whom Hitler was in fact almost unconnected, had subjected Hitler to a course of training of a type practiced in India and Tibet since time immemorial. ³⁸