French anthropologist Bernard Sergent , in La Genèse de l'Inde (1997),  argued that Finno-Ugric (Uralic) may have a genetic source or have borrowed significantly from proto-Dravidian or a predecessor language of West African origins. Some linguists see Uralic (Hungarian, Finnish) as having a linguistic relationship to both Altaic (Turkic, Mongol) language groups  (as in the outdated Ural-Altaic hypothesis) and Dravidian languages. The theory that the Dravidian languages display similarities with the Uralic language group, suggesting a prolonged period of contact in the past,  is popular amongst Dravidian linguists and has been supported by a number of scholars, including Robert Caldwell ,  Thomas Burrow ,  Kamil Zvelebil,  and Mikhail Andronov.  This theory has, however, been rejected by some specialists in Uralic languages,  and has in recent times also been criticised by other Dravidian linguists like the late Bhadriraju Krishnamurti . 
In the cities, bourgeois culture flourished: kabuki drama, bunraku puppet theater, sumō wrestling, ukiyo-e woodblock prints, and geisha entertainers Irrigated fields in front of a housing development near Kyōto. Only about 15 percent of Japan is level enough for agriculture. were all creations of the urban culture. Japanese cities equaled or surpassed their European counterparts in infrastructure and public amenities, but Japanese urbanites lacked a political voice commensurate with their economic and cultural capital.